DATABANK - AUTOMOBILE FACTS

 
This databank has been created to provide answers to some of the most commonly asked questions regarding the automobile. Largely the databank is a list of numbers with brief descriptions. Where possible information is based on globel figures, however as the site is in english many of the national figures will tend to focus on english speaking countries. Every reasonable attempt has been made to ensure the information here is accurate but please cross check with other sources when ever possible. LivingSpace presents this data in good faith and we belive it is accurate  but can not be held responsible for errors which may have slipped through.

The information is organised under the following headings:-

1  - Noise Pollution
2  - Danger, Death & Injury
3  - Air Pollution
4  - The Green Car ?
5  - Peak Oil, Energy Use, MPG & Car Weight
6  - What's In A Barrel Of Oil ?
7  - Global Warming
8  - Car Ownership Rates (World)
9  - Land Use- Parking Requirements
10 - Lane Capacity By Mode & Occupancy Levels
11 - Stopping Distances
12 - Conversion Chart, (Speed-Distance-Area) (Speed-Distance-Area)

 


 

1 - NOISE POLLUTION

THE dB SYSTEM - MEASURING SOUND.

Sound power is measured on a logarithm scale, where the smallest audible sound (near total silence) is 0 dB . An increase of 3 dB represents twice the raw sound power and a 10 dB increase represents a ten-fold increase in sound power. However, the human ear perceives a ten-fold increase in raw sound power (i.e. 10 dB) as being only twice as loud.

Sound measurement is often filtered to replicate the way humans experience sound (effectively reducing the low pitch sounds and emphasising higher pitch). Measurements using this filter are represented as dB (A). Some Low Frequency Noise is ignored because the method of measuring the noise automatically eliminates LF components. A-weighting was designed many years ago and in the scientific world has now been replaced by alternatives, usually C-weighting. (For more on LF noise see: - Hazel Guest, Tackling Low Frequency Noise, paper to Tackling Noise Conference 2003, available at ww.ukna.org.uk/index      files/page0011.htm - accessed Nov. 07).

Abbreviations
Leq = the steady sound level.  Llo = level exceeded 10 percent of the time. Lmax = maximum sound level

EXAMPLES OF COMMON SOUND LEVELS.

Silence 0/3 dB, whisper 20 dB, quiet room 30 dB, refrigerator 40 dB, conversation 50/60 dB, dishwasher 65 dB, freeway traffic 70, heavy traffic 85, truck 90 dB, subway 90 dB, 1/4 inch drill 95 dB, motorcycle 95/110 dB, car horn 110, disco 110 dB, siren 120 dB. (Vehicle sound levels are approximate for dry weather constant speed on level ground) - for a complete listing see - www.nonoise.org/library/household/

At twice the distance sound from a point source covers four times the area and is measured as one quarter the raw energy (i.e. 6 dB less), from a line source twice the distance results in a drop of 3 dB.

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION - THRESHOLD LEVELS.

For clear speech perception 35 dB Laeg - Night-time (outside, 1 metre from facade) 45 dB Laeq - Daytime (outdoor, continuous noise) 50/55 dB Laeq - Hearing impairment 85 dB Laeq 8 hours.

For WHO guideline and threshold levels see: http://www.who.int/docstore/peh/noise/comnoiseexec.htm

NOISE POLLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION.

“In the European Union about 40% of the population is exposed to road traffic noise with an equivalent sound pressure level exceeding 55 dB(A) daytime, and 20% are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A). When all transportation noise is considered, more than half of all European Union citizens are estimated to live in zones that do not ensure acoustical comfort to residents. At night, more than 30% are exposed to equivalent sound pressure levels exceeding 55 dB(A), which are disturbing to sleep. Noise pollution is also severe in cities of developing countries. It is caused mainly by traffic and alongside densely-travelled roads equivalent sound pressure levels for 24 hours can reach 75–80 dB(A).”- Www.who.int/docstore/peh/noise/comnoiseexec.htm

MISCELLANEOUS.

The Most common legal threshold for work places is 85 dB laeq.

Road traffic is reported to account for 80% of external background noise within the EU, we do not have the source data for this, so we report the figure as probable but not proven.

For health impacts of noise see livingspace\Noise\Referances.

 


2 - DANGER, DEATH & INJURY

GLOBAL DEATH & INJURY FIGURES (By automobile impact per year).

Higher kill rates are NOT an indication of higher danger, as an activity becomes more dangerous fewer people will expose themselves to the risk and those that do will take precautions to defend themselves. Higher kill rates in cities and third world countries are probably a reflection of the fact that vulnerable road users have not yet abandoned these places.

 

Global Death & Injury Figures

World 1,200,000 killed , 50,000,000 injured
USA 40,000 killed, 5,000,000 injured
European region 127,000 killed, 2,500,000 injured
EU 45,000 killed, 2,000,000 plus injured
UK 3600 killed,  Injured ?, see ratios note below
Road death account for approx. 2.2% of total world deaths

  

 

DEATH & INJURY RATIOS.

Using epidemiological evidence from national studies, a conservative estimate can be obtained of the ratios between road deaths, injuries requiring hospital treatment, and minor injuries, as being 1:15:70 in most countries. - UN,WORLD REPORT ON ROAD TRAFFIC INJURY PREVENTION

5% of pedestrians struck at 20 mph (30 km/h) are killed, 45% at 30 mph (50 km/h) and 85% at 40 mph (65km/h)  (Ashton and Mackay, 1979) from wikipedia road safety

5% of pedestrians struck at 20 mph are killed - 55% at 30 mph - 95% at 40 mph.
Slower-speeds.org.uk - referencing parliamentary advisory council on transport safety 1996, “taking action on speeding”

EU - In the European Union, more than 40 000 people are killed and more than 150 000 disabled for life by road traffic crashes each year. As a result, nearly 200 000 families annually are newly bereaved or have family members disabled for life. UN,WORLD REPORT ON ROAD TRAFFIC INJURY PREVENTION

UK 1999, 3560 dead , During the same period 330,159 people were reported injured. - "The true scale of road death and injury is far worse still - based on hospital (not police) data, the annual number of injured is almost double and serious injuries are three time higher than the reported 40,000, deaths occurring more than 30 days after the crash are not reflected in the fatality figures"
Road Peace,
Http://www.roadpeace.org/articles/envhealt.html

MEDICAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC COST.

In economic terms, the cost of road crash injuries is estimated at roughly 1% of gross national product(GNP) in low-income countries, 1.5% in middle income countries and 2% in high-income countries. The economic cost to developing countries is said to exceed the total received in international aid. - UN,WORLD REPORT ON ROAD TRAFFIC INJURY PREVENTION.

Medical costs and lost productivity do not capture the psychosocial losses associated with road traffic crashes, either to those injured or to their families. These costs might possibly exceed the productivity losses and medical costs associated with premature death, were they accurately quantifiable. A study conducted in Sweden showed that there was a high rate of psychosocial complications following road traffic crashes, even for minor injuries. - N,WORLD REPORT ON ROAD TRAFFIC INJURY PREVENTION

In the UK Road traffic injury patients represented 10% of hospital bed occupancy.

In some developing countries Road traffic injury patients represented 48% of bed occupancy in surgical wards. -UN,WORLD REPORT ON ROAD TRAFFIC INJURY PREVENTION

MISCELLANEOUS.

In Germany every car produced is responsible for three thousand six hundred hours lost to death and injury.
DIRTY FROM CRADLE TO GRAVE, Umwelt-und Prognose-Institut Heidelberg Öko-bilanz eines autolebens UPI, Landstrasse 118a, D-69121, Heidelberg, Germany. Tel/fax: +(49) (0) 6221-47-35-00. Study available for 10 DM.

The road safety industry was originally created in 1920’s & 30’s by the automobile industry to prevent governments responding to automobile danger, even today most of the road safety “industry” is run by, financed by or controlled or strongly influenced by the automobile industry - its important to remain sceptical when reviewing statements from this source.

“C W Price acknowledged that there were sound economic reasons for the industry to take over the safety movement: a public reaction against the use of automobiles had set in because of the increasing death toll on the nations roads” Stan Luger, p56, Corporate Power,American Democracy, and the automobile industry.

 


3 - AIR POLLUTION


About twice as many people are killed each year in Europe by air pollution as die in road traffic accidents, Analysis of deaths in France, Austria and Switzerland shows 6 % of all deaths - around 40,000 a year - stem from air pollution, around half due to tiny particles in vehicle exhausts, particularly diesel. In addition, traffic causes 25,000 new cases of chronic bronchitis in adults, 290,000 cases in children and more than 500,000 asthma attacks. The Guardian, Friday September 1,
http://www.urban75.com/Action/news121.html, accessed Nov 07

"We know that Europe has 350,000 dying early each year because of air quality, particularly small particles,"“ Barbara Helfferich, spokeswoman for the European Commission's environment directorate

EXHAUST EMISSIONS - source EPA USA.

HYDROCARBONS

Hydrocarbon emissions result when fuel molecules in the engine do not burn or Burn only partially. Hydrocarbons react in the presence of nitrogen oxides and Sunlight to form ground-level ozone, a major component of smog. Ozone irritates The eyes, damages the lungs, and aggravates respiratory problems. It is Our most widespread and intractable urban air pollution problem. A number of Exhaust hydrocarbons are also toxic, with the potential to cause cancer. Under the high pressure and temperature conditions in an engine, nitrogen And oxygen atoms in the air react to form various nitrogen oxides, collectively Known as nox. Nitrogen oxides, like hydrocarbons, are precursors to the Formation of ozone. They also contribute to the formation of acid rain.

CARBON MONOXIDE

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of incomplete combustion and occurs when Carbon in the fuel is partially oxidised rather than fully oxidised to carbon Dioxide (CO ). Carbon monoxide reduces the flow of oxygen in the bloodstream And is particularly dangerous to persons with heart disease.

CARBON DIOXIDE

In recent years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has started to View carbon dioxide, a product of “perfect” combustion, as a pollution concern. Carbon dioxide does not directly impair human health, but it is a “greenhouse Gas” that traps the earth’s heat and contributes to the potential for global Warming

For a far more detailed listing of exhaust pollutants see http://www.worldcarfree.net/resources/stats.php#pollution

For health impacts See LivingSpace, air pollution, references

 


4 - THE GREEN CAR MYTH


A car causes more pollution before it's ever driven than in its entire lifetime of driving. Over its lifetime each car produces 59.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide and 2,040 million cubic metres of polluted air. The green car myth also needs you to believe that the cars only negative impact is air pollution and asks us to ignore all the other social and environmental impacts.

LIFECYCLE POLLUTION OF A SINGLE CAR.

Extracting raw materials:
26.5 tonnes of waste
922 million cubic metres of polluted air.

Transporting raw materials:
12 litres of crude oil in ocean
425 million cubic metres of polluted air.

Producing the car:
1.5 tonnes of waste
74 million cubic metres of polluted air.

Driving the car:
18.4 kilos of abrasive waste
1,016 million cubic metres of polluted air

Disposing of the Car:
102 million cubic metres of polluted air.

Total for manufacture and disposal ? + use = lifetime

These figures are based on a medium-sized car, three-way catalytic converter, driven 130,000 km over 10 years, averaging 10 litres/100 km of unleaded fuel.

Source - Cradle to the Grave study, Umwelt-und Prognose-Institut Heidelberg (Handschuhscheimer Landstr. 118a, 69121 Heidelberg, Germany; tel./fax: +(49) 6221-47-35-00).

 


5 - PEAK OIL, ENERGY USE, MPG & CAR WEIGHT


PEAK OIL.

By Colin Campbells figures we have used 900 Billion Barrels (Gb) of oil, there are known reserves of 900 Gb and there are 200 GB left to discover. Today the world uses 30 GB of oil every year, 24 billion barrels of conventional oil, with the remaining 6 billion coming from heavy oil and tar sands, deep water oil fields, and natural gas liquids (there are 42 US gallons in a barrel, or 159 litres). Oil stocks are declining at the rate of 2.2% per annum. At current levels of extraction we would run out of conventional oil in 35 years.

Peak oil is also the point of maximum output, after a short plateau period the total output of conventional oil will go into steady decline, Declining output reduces extraction rates and therefore extends the life of the well, Carbon and water can be pumped into the wells to try and maintain output rates, as oil prices rise this becomes more economic, however using Carbon and water to maintain extraction rates may reduce the total recoverable figure.. Demand will not be met and prices will escalate.

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF CAR.

Average Energy efficiency of car (USA) 12%
(i.e. 12% converted to momentum, with the balance lost to friction, heat and breaking).
Transportation, Land Use and the Environment - Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigu, Hofstra University,
Http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch8en/conc8en/ch8c4en.html - accessed Nov. 07

Relative to the energy used in driving, the average car requires an extra - 14% to build, 10% in fuel supply chain and 5% in replacement parts - plus the energy used building roads, car parking etc. ?.

AVERAGE MPG  / WEIGHT.

Corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) figures achieved since 2000 - USA -
Source
Http://www.dieselnet.com/standards/us/fe.php 

Corporate average fuel economy (CAFE)
Year Car mpg lt-truck (Suv) mpg  Average
2000      28.5 21.3 24.8
2001      28.8   20.9 24.5
2002      29.0 21.4 24.7
2003      29.4 21.6 25.0
2004      29.3  21.5  24.7

EPA adjusts these figures downward by 15%, to representative of the real world driving conditions.-.

In 1987, the US fleet average was 3220 lbs. In 2006, the average US vehicle tips the scales at a scarcely credible 4142 lbs. (1.87 metric ton)

Sample car weights:-
Mini (BMW) 1135 kg - Toyota corolla 08 2530 lbs - Toyota Prius 2,890 pounds -

Sample Light Truck (SUV) weights
Hummer h2  6400 lb (2903 kg) - ford excursion 7,190 lb. (3,260 kg) -

If two vehicles with the same NHTSA full frontal rating crash into each other head on, but one vehicle weighs twice as much as the other, the occupants of the lighter one (2000 lbs / 909 kgs) are eight times more likely to be killed than the occupants of the heavier vehicle (4000 lbs / 1818 kgs).  However, vehicle weight offers no safety advantage or disadvantage in single-vehicle crashes.

 


6 - WHAT'S IN A BARREL OF CRUDE OIL ?

First the simple answer ....

Crude oil is oil in its crude state (As it comes out of the ground). This oil is then refined to produce the final product. A barrel of crude contains 42 US gallons.

One Oil barrel = 42 US gallons, 158.9873 litres or 34.9723 Imperial (UK) gallons.

A 42-gallon barrel of oil makes about 19.5 gallons of gasoline, 9 gallons of fuel oil, 4 gallons of jet fuel, and 11 gallons of other products, including lubricants, kerosene, asphalt, and petrochemical feedstocks to make plastics.

This by the way comes to 43.5 gallons total. The extra 1.5 gallons is a result of the lower density of the refined products.

In the real world the mix of output varies depending on the grade of crude, the refinery used and the desired product. Practically no one uses barrels any more. The original wooden oil barrel of the late 1800s is different from the modern day 55-gallon steel drum (known as the 44-gallon drum in Britain and the 200-litre drum in Australia). The 42-US gallon oil barrel is a unit of measure, and is no longer used to transport crude oil. Most  crude is pumped in pipelines to nearby refinery’s for processing and then piped to large super tankers for shipment. However by tradition oil is still priced in the USA in barrels.

Wikapedia has this interesting comment on the origins of the US oil barrel. “The 40-gallon whiskey barrel was the most common size used by early oil producers, since they were readily available at the time” and that the 42 gallon standard was established in Pennsylvania back in 1866 - “They agreed to base this measure on the more-or-less standard 40-gallon whiskey barrel, but added an additional two gallons to ensure that any measurement errors would always be in the buyer's favour as an additional way of assuring buyer confidence” -

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barrel_(unit) 

See Also: Gibson Consulting, For Oil Industry Stats. http://www.gravmag.com/oil.html

HOW MUCH ENERGY IS IN A BARREL.

The barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) is a unit of energy based on the approximate energy released by burning one barrel (42 U.S. gallons) of crude oil.

1 BOE = 5.8 Million BTU, or about 1.70 MWh. 1,700 kWh

1 US Gallon Gasoline = 115,000 TU,1 US Gallon Diesel 130,500 BTU,

 A BOE is roughly 6000 cubic feet (170 cubic meters) of typical natural gas.

1 Horse power = 2545 BTU per hour, 745.7 watts

Source: http://bioenergy.ornl.gov/papers/misc/energy_conv.html & http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barrel_of_oil_equivalent

 


7 - GLOBAL WARMING

GLOBAL TRANSPORT CARBON EMISSIONS.

Transport as a Percent of total national carbon emissions (Internal Transportation) 2005:- 
UK 23%, Germany 20%, France 38%, Italy 27%, Switzerland 32%, Spain 33%, Canada 29%, Australia 21%, Average developed 24%, Average Developing 16%,

“Internal Transportation includes emissions from combustion of fuels for road, rail, air, and other forms of transportation, and agricultural vehicles while they are on highways. The emissions include all sectors of the economy, but do not include international aviation or ship emissions.”
Source: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Economic Sector 2005, International Energy Agency (IEA)

Transport accounts for 25% of the world’s carbon emissions and for 33% in the USA. In States like Vermont that figure can rise to 46%. (see note below)

By 2050, 30–50% of global CO2 emissions are projected to come from the transport sector.
Nakicenovic N, Alcamo J, Davis G, de Vries B, Fenhann J, Gaffin S, Gregory K, Gru¨ bler A, Jung TY, Kram T, et al. (2000) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Cambridge UnivPress, Cambridge, UK).

TRANSPORT IN THE USA.

In the USA “Power plants are the nation’s largest source of carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption, contributing 40 percent of emissions from energy sources in 2005, Passenger vehicles are the next largest source, contributing 20 percent of emissions. Other transportation sources contribute an additional 13 percent of emissions.” .... “Passenger vehicles are responsible for about one-fifth of all carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption and 60 percent of the carbon dioxide emissions from the transportation sector.” The additional 13% figure includes internal flights but not international flights.
State and National Trends in Carbon Dioxide Emissions Since 1990. Environment Colorado Research & Policy Center

Across the USA transport now accounts for a full two thirds of carbon emissions from direct fossil fuel consumption . 

 Transport & Global Warning - USA

United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 430-R-07-002, April 2007
Http://epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventoryreport.html - accessed Dec. 07


EUROPEAN UNION.

The average European car produces over 4 tonnes of carbon dioxide every year. If we include production and disposal a medium size car will produce approx. 60 tonnes of carbon dioxide Over its lifetime, this is before roads, parking and other infrastructure and lifestyle effects are added.

“Transport is the worst performing sector under ‘Kyoto’ and seriously jeopardises the achievement of the targets. Transport CO2 emissions in the EU grew by 32% between 1990 and 2005. Other sectors reduced their missions by 9.5% on average over the same period. The share of transport in CO2 emissions was 21% in 1990, but by 2005 this had grown to 27%. Emissions from so-called ‘light duty vehicles’ (passenger cars and vans) are responsible for approximately half of this. - (European federation for transport and environment ,Regulating CO2 emissions of new cars, http://www.transportenvironment.org”/docs/Publications/2007/2007-10  background briefing, cars, co2, regulation.pdf)

MISCELLANEOUS.

The world pumps 7 billion tons of carbon into the biosphere each year while the ability of our ecosystem to absorb CO2 stands at 4 billion tonnes. These gases are suspended in the atmosphere for up to 200 years.
Source Gorge Monbiot, Heat.

Have we already passed the tipping point, are global climate talks a con, check out the real numbers from Gorge Monbiot:- http://www.monbiot.com/archives/2007/05/01/1058/

See also LivingSpace, Warming main page & references.

 


8 - CAR OWNERSHIP RATES (WORLD)


PASSENGER CARS PER THOUSAND OF POPULATION.

Car ownership rates per 1,000 - World
Argentina - 140 Egypt  - 23 Japan - 428 Spain - 441
Australia - 493 France - 491 Mexico - 107 South. Africa - 94
Brazil - 120 Germany - 516 Netherlands - 384 Sweden - 452
Belgium  - 464 Greece - 254 New Zealand - 613 * Switzerland - 507
Chile - 87 Hungary - 259 Poland - 259 Turkey - 66
Canada - 559 Italy - 542 Portugal - 426 UK - 384
China - 7 Iran - 30 Romania - 144 USA - 481
China - 7 Iraq - 38 Russia - 132 Uganda - 2
Cuba - 16 Israel - 230 Saudi Arabia - 98 Zimbabwe - 29
Czech  Rep. - 356 India - 6 Singapore - 122  

 (World highest:-  New Zealand 613 - World Lowest:-  Bangladesh & Tajikistan 0)

The definition of passenger cars used here is road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended to carry passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver). These figures are based on total population numbers (Not just adults or driving licence holders or any other handy distortion.) 

Source :- Worldmapper Dataset 031: Passenger Cars - Author Danny Dorling -
Publisher, SASI, University of Sheffield,
http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/sasi

Original Data sources

“The World Bank World Development Indicators 2005 time series for passenger cars per 1,000 people (IS.VEH.PCAR.P3) was used as the basis for these estimates. The original source of data was the International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and data files.”

World Mapper provides a full listing of countries and also provides data relating to commute time and transit use.

See World Mapper - http://www.worldmapper.org/display.php?selected=31#

 


9 - LAND USE & PARKING REQUIREMENTS


LAND USE.

“The ideal density for automobile based travel has been set at a very modest two to four net residential; dwellings per acre, 2500 persons per square mile.”
Dom Nozzi, Road to ruin Page 70. Praeger Press. Isbn 0-275-98129-0 - referencing Centre for Urban transportation research, transportation, land use, 21


“Transportation has led to a massive consumption of space with 1.5 to 2.0% of total land surface devoted to the automobile, mainly for roads and parking. The dependence on transportation has reached a point where 30 to 60% of urban areas are taken by road transportation infrastructure alone. In extreme cases of dependency on road transportation, such as Los Angeles, this figure can reach 70%”.
Transportation, Land Use and the Environment - Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigu, Hofstra University,
Http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch8en/conc8en/ch8c4en.html - accessed Nov. 07

Percentage of land area reported as used by roads/parking UK 1.75%, USA 1.75%, the highest is japan at 3.5% - we do not know exactly what these figures include, they may only include tarmac and concrete, if verges and setbacks are included the number could be higher, if sprawl is included they would be very much higher.

“Every German car is responsible for 200 m2 of tarmac and concrete.”
Cradle to the Grave study, Umwelt-und Prognose-Institut Heidelberg (Handschuhscheimer Landstr. 118a, 69121 Heidelberg, Germany

PARKING REQUIREMENTS.

Area for parking , parallel approx. 200/250 sq. Ft, car park approx. 300/350 sq. Ft.

Reported Car parking spaces per car are quoted in a range from 6 to 30 ?

“In the 48 contiguous states USA, construction costs for above-ground parking structures are typically $18 to $22 per square foot. (Costs in Alaska and Hawaii tend to be a good deal higher.)....The most important construction cost consideration is the added expense associated with subterranean construction, which, unlike above-ground structures with open sides, requires excavation, mechanical ventilation, and automatic fire sprinklers. The added cost for these items typically approaches $10 per square foot.”

Construction cost per car  space (333-50 sq. Ft) usd, not including land cost - above ground $6,750-9,625, underground $10,500-16,187.  - Healthcare Financial Management,  Nov., 1995  by Robert A. Rosenthal, Cost-effective facility parking strategies - outpatient healthcare facilities http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi      m3257/is      n11      v49/ai      18010356

x - Ref: car pollution and the cars environmental impact, the cars pollution and cars environment cost.

 


10 - LANE CAPACITY BY MODE & OCCUPANCY LEVELS


MAXIMUM CAPACITIES PER LANE (3 METER).

How many passengers can pass along a single lane 3-4m wide within one hour?

Maximum Capacitie Per Lane - (3 Meter)

City street 750 cars (Average occupancy 1.2 / 1.5 per car)
2 lane highway 1,400 cars (one lane each direction + hard shoulders)
Freeway / Motorway 2,000 cars (Capacity drops as lanes are added)
Bike 13,500
Walking 13,500 mixed direction (Single direction 20k)
Bus 15,000
Bur rapid Transit (BRT) 30,000
Tram 25,000 - 36,000
Subway 80,000 - 120,000


WALKWAYS AND SIDEWALKS.

Capacity = 75 peds/min/meter width
Stairways Capacity = 49 peds/min/meter
Queuing Areas Capacity = 5 peds per square meter
Multimodal and Simulation Analysis, Rick Dowling, Dowling Associates, Year 2000 Highway Capacity Manual Seminar. -
Http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:3fdv6kxfljwj:https://people.sunyit.edu/~lhmi/ahb40/ppt/session4.ppt+capacity+sidewalk&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=43&client=opera

“We estimate that typically less than 20% of the collector and arterial network of U.S. metropolitan areas have sidewalks.” MODELLING THE ROADSIDE WALKING ENVIRONMENT: A PEDESTRIAN LEVEL OF SERVICE. Http://www.dot.state.fl.us/planning/systems/sm/los/pdfs/pedlos.pdf .

BUS / BUS RAPID TRANSIT.

“Transit systems using standard -size buses, each with a capacity of about 80 passengers, are able to carry up to 10,000 passengers per hour per lane in mixed traffic. Systems using larger buses with a capacity of 120 or more, operating in the same conditions, can carry up to 15,000 passengers per hour“

“With off -line stations and terminals providing multiple boarding platforms, volumes in excess of 30,000 passengers per hour per lane, and journey speeds between 15-30 km, may be reached. Busways with the potential for achieving these levels of performance exist in several cities. Yet, even without completely exclusive conditions, the Sao Paulo busways carry more than 27,000 passengers per hour in a single lane at journey speeds of 19 km/h. Buses operate in convoys and stop opposite a series of designated bus stops in a predetermined sequence so that the passengers can embark or disembark from several buses simultaneously.”

Source: HIGH CAPACITY BUS SYSTEMS
Http://web.iitd.ac.in/~tripp/urbantrpt/hcbs/hcbs/dmhcbsnote.pdf .

LIGHT RAIL (Tram).

Light rail vehicles can travel in trains carrying much higher passenger volumes.[14] If run in streets, light rail systems are limited by city block lengths to about four 180-passenger vehicles (720 passengers). Operating on 2 minute headway’s using traffic signal progression, a well-designed system can handle more than 30 trains per hour, achieving peak rates of over 20,000 passengers per hour per track. More advanced systems with separate rights-of-way using moving block signalling can exceed 25,000 passengers per hour per track.

Some commentators have suggested that headway can be reduced to 30 sec. per vehicle, which would give a figure of 36k per direction per at 200 passengers per vehicle.

UNDERGROUND (Metro Rail).

Probably the highest achieved capacity for a single line of metro is in the Tokyo underground, the Yamanote line handles 1,300,000,000 passengers per year, or 3,550,000 per day, and. At the peak 84,560 passengers are carried from Ueno to Okachimachi for one hour. The official capacity for this line is only 41,000 with the 84k figure being achieved due to unacceptable levels of overcrowding. The subway trains in Tokyo are usually crammed with 150-200% of the capacity during the peak hours. Over 300% was not uncommon in 1960s, sometimes the overcrowding was so bad it resulted in the windows breaking.

Yamanote line official capacity (cars 143 x 2 + 162 x 9) x 24 trains  = 41,856 per hour

A typical subway train has 8 cars. Maximum capacity of a car 330-370 people (depending on the type of a car), in reality it exceeds 400 people per car in rush hour

400 x 8 = 3,200 people per train, interval between trains is 90 seconds = 128,000 per hour, per lane.
Average speed of trains (including stops) - 41 km/hr,
Typical maximum speed of trains between stations - 90 km/h.

For an excellent discussion on metro capacity see skyscrapercity.com bulletin board,
Skyscrapercity > World Forums > Infrastructure and Mobility > Subways and Urban Transport
Posted question “What is the highest capacity metro/urban rapid transit line in the world?”
 
Http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=418972 .

OCCUPANCY RATES.

Car occupancy rates in Europe:-  Source: IEA, 1997,

Commuting to/from work  - 1.1-1.2 , Family trip  1.4-1.7 , Travel and leisure 1.6-2.0

 


11 - STOPPING DISTANCES


DRY WEATHER STOPPING DISTANCE.

Dry Weather Stopping Distance
SPEED mph REACTION DIS. BRAKING DIS. TOT. DISTANCE.
20 mph 20 ft. (6 m) 20 ft. (6 m) 40 ft. (12 m) 
30 mph 30 ft. (9 m) 45 ft. (14 m) 75 ft. (23 m
40 mph 40 ft. (12 m)  80 ft. (24 m) 120 ft. (36 m)
50 mph 50 ft. (15 m) 125 ft. (38 m)  175 ft. (53 m)
60 mph 60 ft. (18 m) 180 ft. (55 m) 240 ft. (73 m) 
70 mph 70 ft. (21 m) 245 ft. (75 m) 240 ft. (73 m) 

  Source:- Http://www.hintsandthings.co.uk/garage/stopmph.htm

WET WEATHER STOPPING DISTANCE.

Wet Weather Stopping Distance
SPEED kph / mph REACTION DIS. BRAKING DIS. TOT. DISTANCE.
       
30 kph - 18.6 mph   5.5 meters    9.4 meters 14.9 meters - 49 ft. 
50 kph -  31 mph   9.2 meters   26.1 meters 35.2 meters - 115 ft
60 kph - 37.3 mph   11 meters   37.5 meters  48.5 meters - 159 ft
80 kph - 49.7 mph   14.7 meters   66.7 meters 81.4 meters - 267 ft
100 kph - 62.1 mph   18.3 meters 104.3 meters 122.6 meters - 401 ft

 

Original Source: Transport Research Laboratory, UK, 2007, © Road Safety Authority, 2007
FROM http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi
 .

 


12 - CONVERSION CHART: (Speed-Distance-Area)


SPEED

1 kilometre/hour = 0.621 371 192 mile/hour (mph)
1 mile/hour (mph) = 1.609 344 kilometre/hour

1 mile/hour (mph) = 1.466 666 667 foot/second = 44.704 centimetre/second
1 kilometre/hour = 27.777 777 778 centimetre/second =  0.911 344 415 foot/second

DISTANCE

1 meter = 3.280 839 895 feet
1 foot = 0.304 8 meter

1 mile = 5 280 feet = 1.609 344 kilometre
1 kilometre = 1 000 meters =  0.621 371 192 mile

AREA

1 acre = 0.404 685 642 hectare = 43 560 square foot = 4 046.856 422 4 square meter
1 hectare = 2.471 053 815 acre = 10 000 square meter = 107 639.104 167 097 square foot

1 square mile = 640 acre or  258.998 811 034 hectare = 27 878 400 sq. Foot
1 square kilometre = 100 hectare  or  247.105 381 467 acre = 1 000 000 sq. Meter

For an on-line conversion tool see: Http://www.onlineconversion.com/faq.htm .

 


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